Models & frameworks

Organizations have developed a variety of models and frameworks to describe what they mean by CE. Generally, these models describe a continuum ranging from a low level to a high level of public participation, depending on the goal to be achieved. Some of the CE techniques associated with each goal are also described. Two recent examples from health organizations are shown below:


Winnipeg Regional Health Authority Participation Model

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Health Canada’s Public Involvement Continuum 

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This website uses the terms of the International Association of Public Participation (IAP2) to describe the different levels or goals of CE:
Level 1 = Inform; Level 2 = Consult; Level 3 = Involve; Level 4 = Collaborate; and Level 5 = Empower.

For more information, go to CE goals »

Go to related resources »